INDIA: On the Bodhi Tree

T he Aswattha is unrivaled throughout Hinduism, here is a mention of the tree from Vedic time onward. The tree is mentioned in the Bhagavata Gita as Aswattha or the “one that is not the same tomorrow”, with reference perhaps, to this world which is ever changing.

FICUS RELIGIOSA

Family Moraceae
Sanskrit: Aswattha
Hindi: Peepul, Bo tree, Bodhi tree
English: Indian Fig tree

There is a belief that the plant gives off oxygen at night but this belief is not supported by any scientific fact.
The sacredness of the Aswattha is mentioned in the Mahabharata:

“Aswattha, having its roots above and branches below is eternal. Its leaves are the Chhandas. He who knows it, knows the vedas. Downwards and upwards are stretched its branches which are enlarged by the qualities; its sprouts are the objects of sense. Downwards, its roots leading to action are extended to this world of men”.

According to the footnotes given by Roy in his translation of the Mahabharata:

“upwards and downwards means from the highest to the lowest of created things. Enlarged by the qualities i.e. the qualities appearing as the body, the senses etc. The sprouts are the objects of sense, being attached to the senses themselves as sprouts to branches. The roots extending downwards are the desires for diverse enjoyments”.

Detailing the sacredness of Aswattha, it is said that its form cannot be known or its end, or its beginning, or its support.
“Cutting with the hard weapon of unconcern, this Aswattha of roots firmly fixed, then should one seek for that place repairing wither one returned not again . . . thinking, I will seek the protection of that primeval Sire from
whom the ancient course of worldly life hath flowed”.

Hindus associate the tree with the three gods Brahma, Vishnu and Siva.
The tree is considered to be a Brahman and worshiped daily after the morning bath.

If an elderly member of the family dies, special offerings are made to it during the full thirteen days of mourning. If a boy dies during his thread ceremony, he is supposed to haunt the Aswattha tree.
The Aswattha is allegorical. Each tree is believed to arise from an unperceived root which is emblematic of the body and it springs from the god-head.

In the Gita, the tree is supposed to typify the universe. This perhaps is because the figs of the tree are eaten by birds and its, seeds pass through the alimentary canal of the birds unharmed and take root at most unimaginable places like the roof or walls of a house or even on another tree. The root after going into the crevices of the house or into the bark of other trees then becomes invisible. Aswattha has aerial, hanging adventitious roots
which come down to earth and act as props to the trees; the slender petioles cause its leaves to tremble readily in a breeze, making a characteristic fluttering sound.

The tree is considered to be Vishnu himself and at the same time Vishnu is believed to have been born under it. That is the reason why the tree or its branches are never cut unless it is for worship.

Krishna stealing the cloths of the Gopis. Chitrashala, Miniature Paintings, Bundi School of Art, Bundi Palace.

A ceremony called Aswattha Pratishta or the consecration of the Aswattha is performed to transform the tree into a divinity by-inducing Vishnu into it Brahmanas believe that untold blessings will be showered upon anyone who performs this ceremony.

According to the Mahabharata, the man who worships Aswattha daily worships the whole universe. When Krishna stole the clothes of the Gopis (Cowgirls), he took them to an Aswattha tree.

Even though the tree is mainly associated with Vishnu, some consider Shiva as the patron deity of the tree.
Brahmanas worship the Aswattha during their daily evening prayer. They go to the tree and facing east repeat a prayer and sing hymns in praise of the tree which says:

“Oh Aswattha tree! You are a God.

You are king among trees.

Your roots represent Brahma, the Creator;

your trunk represents Siva, the Destroyer and your branches,

Vishnu the Preserver.

As such you are the emblem of Trimurti.

All those who honor you ;

in this world by performing Upanayama,

walk round you, adoring you and singing your praise;

obtain remission of their sins in this world and bliss in the next.

I praise and adore you.

Pardon my sins in this world and give me a place with the blessed after death”.

The worshiper then walks round the tree 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 or more times but always in multiples of seven.
Elwin tells us that sometimes the roots of Aswattha represent Brahma; its bark represents Vishnu and its branches Mahadeva.

Tree marriages:

According to certain peoples like Muria’s, the tree is not worshiped as ft is considered to be an untouchable.
The tree is regarded as a symbol of the male and is ceremoniously married to a Neem tree which is symbolic of the female. In villages in India, usually these two trees are grown side by side with a platform built round them. On the platform inter-twined or coiled snake stones are placed which are symbols of fertility.

This symbolic association of the sexes is reversed in Rajasthan and Punjab where the Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree is considered a male. Since women do not show their face to male strangers, women in these areas cover their face with a veil on passing a Neem tree.

In Orissa a marriage is performed between the Vata (Ficus bengaltnsis) tree which is considered as the male and the Aswattha which is considered as the female, the tree is frequently planted near a Vata tree so as to mix their foliage and stems from a superstitious notion that they are of two different sexes and their growing together is regarded as an emblem of marriage. The tree is invested with the triple cord like Brahman and with the same attendant ceremonies as the thread ceremony of a Brahmana. The Aswattha is also sometimes married to the Kadali tree (Musa sapientura), the two trees are grown so close and their trunks intertwine so much that they look like one.
The tree is considered sacred by some peoples of the Ganjam district of Orisa.

According to the legend before the creation of the world, Kittung and his sister used to live in a gourd. When the gourd broke, the two started living on the Kurabeli hill. This was at a time when there were no trees on this earth. When summer came, the sister complained of the intense heat as mere were no trees to give them shade. About this time, a squirrel bit off four fingers of the left hand of the Kittung while he was asleep at night, leaving only the third middle finger. On hearing his sister complain of the heat, the Kittung cut off his maimed left hand and put it on a stone which grew into the Aswattha tree called the Onjerneban tree by the tribal people. The apex of the leaf is prolonged into a long projection which to the people represents the middle finger of the Kittung’s hand. The tribes make offerings to Ratusum in cups made of its leaves.

Sacred Fire:

The sacredness of the Aswattha tree comes perhaps from the old vedic ritual of kindling the sacrificial fire at religious ceremonies by friction between two peculiarly shaped pieces of wood, one of which was the
Aswattha wood and the ceremony was called “the birth of Agni”. The vessels containing Soma rus were made of the Aswattha wood. Till today, women worship the tree by going around it, wrap cotton yarn round its trunk and water its roots.
A story in the Mahabharata and Vishnu Purana mentions the importance of Aswattha in the ritual of kindling the sacred fire of Homa.

Pururavas in sadness

Pururavas, son of Ila and Buddha saw the heavenly nymph Urvasi sporting with her friends and instantly fell in love with her. She also fell in love with him and both lived together happily for many years. Urvasi had to ultimately return to her heavenly abode as an Apsara cannot live for ever with a mortal. Pururavas became inconsolable at his loss and the Gandharvas took pity on him. Since it was not possible for Urvasi to live with him on earth, these semi-divine beings decided to include Pururavasamong them by making him an immortal. They gave him the divine fire and by wishing to be united with Urvasi before it, he could become an immortal. Pururavas left the fire in the forest and went on an errand. On his return he found the fire and the pan turned into the Aswattha tree and the Sami (Acacia suma) tree respectively.
In fact the Aswattha was growing out of the Sami plant. Having lost the fire, Pururavas could not wish for permanent life with Urvasi. So he approached the Gandharvas again who asked him to make the fire drill or Arani from the wood of the two trees into which the fire and the pan had been converted and with the fire thus produced, wish for a permanent life with Urvasi and the wish would be granted. Pururavas first made the fire drill with two twigs of the Sami plant but it was not the right type of fire; then he took two twigs of Aswattha but still did not succeed.
Ultimately he made the drill by using the upper wood of Aswattha and the lower of the Sami plant for making the fire and the fire thus produced was the right type of fire and by wishing before it, he obtained his wish. Since the fire is produced by friction between the Aswattha and the Sami plant in the sacred Horns ceremony, the analogy between this and the intercourse of sexes is apparent. Aswattha is the male, Sami is the female and the Agni thus produced is the child. Agni once hid himself in the Aswattha tree and because of this temporary home of Agni devatta, Aswattha tree became sacred.
The importance of sacrificial fires as initiatory rites to the final attainment of immortality has been accepted by Hindus since very early times. Their, origin lies in the philosophy that the mere mortal must realize the necessity
to strive after higher and finer values and not hanker after merely earthly passions. Homa is performed at practically all important sacred functions such as the investiture of the sacred thread, at the hair cutting ceremony, marriage and other ceremonies, when an offering of curds, ghee, rice etc. are made to it.

Apsaras (a female spirit of the clouds and waters in Hindu and Buddhist mythology) are said to inhabit the sacred Fig trees in which their symbols and lutes resound. Their favorite Fig trees are the Nyagrodha, Aswattha, Udumbara and Plakshi (Ficus bengalensis, Ficus religiosa, Ficus glomerata,
Ficus lacor (also identified as Butea monosperma).

In Bengal a ritual called Aswatthapats-vrata is observed by women on the last day of the month of Vaisakh (April-May). Five leaves of Aswattha are required for this ritual and each leaf signifies a different stage of human life. For instance, a new leaf for the birth of a son, a young green leaf for beauty and youth, an old leaf for long life of the husband, a dry leaf for increase in happiness and wealth, a withered leaf for precious wealth beyond expectation. The plant is a symbol of fertility and is worshiped by women for the grant of a child.

A tree of Aswattha is believed to be growing on the mythical island called Plaksha dvipa. The gods are said to sit under the Aswattha tree in the third heaven. Krishna was sitting under an Aswattha tree when Jara shot him in the foot with an arrow.

Buddhism:

Bodhi tree, worship- as seen in early Buddhist Stupa in Sanchi dated from 300 BCE.

Buddhists also consider the tree sacred as Prince Siddhartha sat in meditation under this tree and found enlightenment. The tree since then is known as the Bo or the Bodhi tree, otherwise known as Assattha in Pali, Asvattha in Sanskrit, Bo in Sinhala, Po in Thai, Bawdi in Burmese, Pipale in Hindi, Bodhi Tree or Sacred Fig in English, Ficus religiosa in botanical writings contemplating the extent of his new understanding.

Siddhartha came to be known as the Buddha. There are three trees associated with the attainment of Omniscience by Lord Buddha. The Buddha sat for seven years under an Aswattha tree (Bodhi Tree), the tree of  Enlightenment, growing on the banks of the river Nairanjans, absorbed in the bliss of his enlightenment. Then he arose and sat under a Nyagrodha tree  (Banyan Tree) for seven days, absorbed in the bliss of his illumination. At the end of that period he sat in blissful calm under a third tree in form of a big Serpent, named Muchalinda. The serpent king, protected Buddha with his hood from a storm as Buddha sat in meditation under it.

The three trees are known as:

  • The tree of Enlightenment;
  • Tree of the Goatherd;
  • Tree of the serpent king Muchalinda respectively.

A Bodhi Tree planted in Sri Lanka in B.C. 228 is still alive and the seedlings are planted in many temples.

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Bodhi Tree- Use

All parts of the Bodhi Tree have been used as a medicine for their cooling and healing properties, as part of the Ayurvedic healing system. They have been used to treat various diseases of the skin and blood, digestive, reproductive, respiratory and other body systems.

Some known medicinal uses reported in the literature are:

* Leaves – to relieve diarrhea and dysentery

*Fruit – to treat asthma, digestive problems and as an antidote against venom and other poisons

*Seeds – for urinary ailments

*Bark – as an antibiotic against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

*Sap (latex) – to remove warts

*Roots – to heal ulcers and gum disease

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REFERENCES, ATTRIBUTIONS AND FURTHER READING

  • Bhagavata Gita.
  • Fergusson James. Tree and Serpent Worship in India. 1869.
  • Gupta Shakti M.Plant Myths & Traditions in India. 1968.
  • Mahabharata.
  • Complete translation by Kisari Mohan Ganguli, published by Pratap Chandra Roy, on request on Mahabharata in Translation.
  • Wiki-commons: Pururavas by Khitindra Nath Mazumdar, in Myths of the Hindus & Buddhists. 1914.